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National And State Parks At The Crossroads

State and national parks in trouble. We’ll look at what’s ahead for camping, canoeing and the great outdoors.

National and state parks are some of the most recognized public spaces in the country, but many of them are in trouble. (AP)

National and state parks are some of the most recognized public spaces in the country, but many of them are in trouble. (AP)

It’s a rough economy summer. And for a lot of Americans that will mean the best vacation is some simple communing with the great outdoors.

Throw the tent in the trunk. Grab some hot dogs and marshmallows. Take the family camping, swimming, out on a picnic, a hike.

Cheap, simple, beautiful.

Except for this: in many states, state parks -– a big destination for those days in nature -– are under the budget axe. California is closing 70.

We’ve got cutbacks and padlocks. And the national parks are feeling the strain, too.

This hour On Point: summer, and the future of our great park system.

- Tom Ashbrook

Guests:

Thomas  Kiernan, president of the National Parks Conservation Association. He is the former president of the Audubon Society of New Hampshire.

Carolyn Finney, geographer and assistant professor in the department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California-Berkeley.

Philip McKnelly, executive director of the National Association of State Park Directors. He is the former superintendent for State Parks in North Carolina.

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  • http://richardsnotes.org Richard

    My parents dragged me to every major national park when I was a kid (’60s) and I’ve been to most of the parks at least once. I lived in Yosemite Valley’s infamous “Camp 4/Sunnyside” (in my VW bus) summers (’70s-early ’80s) as a serious rock climber and watched Yosemite Valley go from a manageable place to an overcrowded Disneyworld-like attraction. I took my family there eighteen years ago and it was so crowded I swore I wouldn’t return, wanting to preserve my earlier memory.

    My wife and I hiked up Half Dome eighteen years ago and now its so crowded one has to make a reservation to climb the cable stairway to the top. While this may be necessary for crowd control it underscores that I experienced that park in its prime (fewer people).Over the years the Sierra Club has attempted to forge long term plans for Yosemite and other parks, balancing access with protection. Its a serious design problem: why should taxpayers support parks that they can’t get to because they’re over crowded and poorly managed? On the other hand, if we don’t support them, the parks will go away and once gone it would be near impossible to get them back.

  • Yar

    The answer is the Civilian Conservation Corp.  The question really doesn’t matter, our country needs to invest in youth.  Youth need to learn skills and get work experience.  I am frustrated with the ‘how to divide the pie debate’ is going, instead of looking  at how to get the most from every tax dollar spent, we talk about private investment growing the country.  Productive work is what builds infrastructure, not financial trickery in some private equity firm.  Put these kids to work building parks, schools, anywhere there is a need, train youth to fill it.  It really isn’t that complicated.  It just takes leadership that wants to make this nation a better place.  

    • Anonymous

      How right you are.  It’s incredible to see the infrastructure of buildings, paths, etc. that were built over 70 years ago still beautiful and functional.    The work done by the CCC was of the absolute highest quality, and done with artistic flair. 

      Maybe it’s time for someone to ask those citizens of our country with a need and desire to serve whether they “can be all they can be” without being shipped to some distant country where the inhabitants are trying to kill them.

    • http://richardsnotes.org Richard

      Well said. Maybe we should step back further and make it mandatory that everyone do national service: military or CCC.

      • Yar

        It should be mandatory!  The military can recruit from the graduates of the CCC.  Two years right after high school.  In my mind this is the best chance to save the country.  Our youth are our future, we need them to have the skills to make good decisions.  Where better than community service to get those skills.  You learn to get along with others, you have pride in your accomplishments, you develop respect for the great nation we live in.  Some will say we can’t afford such a program, I believe we can’t afford not to do it.

  • Anonymous

    Here’s one more thing that’s failing on our nation. From health care to jobs to flat wages and two wars that are draining our financial resources it seems to me that our nation is going to have to make some real choices here. What kind of society do we want?  Do we want to live in two teared third world oligarchy or do we want a democracy that is really for the people and not corporations. Huge tax cuts and two wars have drained the coffers and this mindless mantra from the republicans about not raising taxes is going to kill everything that has made our nation great.
    One of the things that separated this nation from any other when the national parks were developed is that our parks were just that, ours.
    The very idea of having national parks was unheard of before the 19th and early 20th centuries. In Europe all the land was owned by royalty, the gentry or private concerns. The Queen of England still owns all the swans in Great Britain and in Scotland fishing for salmon on a river or stream is a rich mans sport.  Mind you they do have that wonderful right of way law.

    John Muir is weeping in his grave.

  • Bfitz0909

    sell them all. we need the energy, and only lazy people use parks anyway – isn’t that what a vacation house is for?

    • Sam Wilson

      fantastic… idea, i second that!!!

    • Terry Tree Tree

      FOR ALL WITH THIS ATTITUDE;  Confine yourself and your family from ALL green things.  Spend your life, vacations and all, in the concrete and glass world, full of pollution.  By the way, also only eat foods produced from petroleum products, or other laboratory-based processes.  Drink only water from polluted sources, recycled many times over.  Nature provides us with plenty of energy, for the price of Wind Turbines, Solar Collectors, Tide-Generators, etc…, that are non-polluting, non-dependent on foreign countries, no radiation hazards, and many other advantages.

      Terry, in Brewstertown, Tenn.

      • Sam Wilson

        Hi Terry,

        I sensed sarcasm in Bfitz0909′s post.. dont you sense that as well?

        • Terry Tree Tree

          Sam,  I considered that it might be sarcasm, but I responded to the actual statement, which too many people have.  If it was sarcasm, Bfitz will welcome my response.  Just after “Drill, Baby, Drill”, came Spill, Baby, Spill!!!, which the Texas Tea Party didn’t go drink up, before it killed and ruined a lot!  The rich spoilers DON’T live in the messes they create.      Terry

          • ThresherK

            I’m sorta with you: Poe’s Law and all that.

    • Bangor

      love it- more condo development!   i’d love to go to the same  vacation house on the Cape year after year after year instead of varying my trips each year to see this amazing world. 

    • Anonymous

      Do you wear clown shoes?

  • Andreawilder

    Parks are an essential safety valve.
    Where would I be without Acadia National Park in Maine?
    Bereft.

    Andrea

  • Mcraighgead

    Our national parks are the last significant contribution by the wealthiest among us to the general welfare. The parks are why I consider Teddy R. the last really great Republican president

    • Steve

      How about Ronald Reagan?

      Did not his Secretary of the Dept. of Interior, upon traveling through the Grand Canyon, suggest cutting funding for the parks because the rapture was just around the corner?

      • http://richardsnotes.org Richard

        His name was James Watt. A total ass who had absolutely no “wattage.”

  • nj

    With the corporate oligarchy fully in charge, cutting budgets for parks merely serves their constituency. The rich don’t need parks, they can just jet off to their favorite resort with their tax cuts. Common folks needing a vacation can just sit in their backyards with their feet in a wading pool, watching the pigeons.

    And there must be some valuable resources buried in these parks. Let’s get some extraction going; job creation, you know. And self-sufficiency (less reliance on foreign imports). People can hike around their block. We need those resources.

  • tryharder

    We could let the 2 trillion in failed Bush tax cuts expire and use the revenue to help pay for our national-natural treasures, help out state budget shortfalls etc etc etc.  But the bland mediocrity of corporate conservatism won’t allow for that, will it?

  • George Tturner

    as was the case in the 30′s the parks, environmental restoration and development of park facilities should be the center of stimulus public employment program. another WPA would cost a small fraction of the financial buy outs and actually benefit people.
    this is about much more than vacations. gt

    • ThresherK

      There is something which (I’d like to consider, even at this point) shocking in the timeframe. Is there like a CCC in reverse going on now, in the aftermath of the deepest recession since the Great Depression?

  • Anonymous

    I noticed on two recent state park trips (Maine, Mass.) that the lighting was still regular bulbs. If I don’t forget I’ll bring a few CFLs with me on our next trip and replace them to help with electricity costs.

  • troll doll

    Its too bad that all this is in avoidance of taxing rich americans and corporations.

  • Theresathom007

    To ensure relevancy in an ever changing and diversifying American public, what are the National Parks and state parks doing to reach out and encourage diverse audiences to visit and participate in park programs/activities?

    • Steve

      Is this sarcastic?

  • http://www.friendsofthebluehills.org Bflagg

    I volunteer in the Blue Hills Reservation in Miltion, MA with the Friends of the Blue Hills and run a trail maint program.  We bring over 100 people into the park each year to conduct this important work.  With all the unemployed people out there, they could come into the parks to perform maintenance, get excercise and HAVE FUN!!  States do not have the funding to maintain the parks so it is up to the people to take this responsibility on.  Get out and Get Involved.

    • Lipo53

      Volunteerism should be exactly that voluntary. An employed (or unemployed) person can choose to volunteer as they like.

      An unemployed person has a fulltime job finding employment. Just because a person is unemployed it does not mean they should be forced to work for nothing. That’s called slavery.

  • Audrey

    I’m up to my 157th unit of the National Park System now, in a 16-year-oddyssey. I went from not even knowing there was such a thing as a national park to being a most passionate enjoyer and supporter, from Dry Tortugas off the coast of Florida to Klondike Gold Rush in Alaska. The dimensions of richness they have added to my life are indescribable. Having experienced so much of nature’s majesty, simplicity, complexity and infinite diversity enables me to think on a planetary level instead of on the more narrow, personal level of what may appear to be in the best interests of “me” and “my tribe” at this moment. Think how such an expanded perspective shared by millions of Americans might change things for the better. I am beholden to our park system and believe that all who experience them become better citizens as a result. 

  • Anonymous

    I’m pretty sure god wants us to privatize the operation of these parkland concessions.

    • Steve

      Change your name to justastoner.

  • Tkm

    Which of the support organizations are most accountable to supporting the outdoor NPS sites?

  • Freeman

    Tom;
            Absolutely amazing; Ask your guest Thomas why do we pay so so many Government employees to put our parks and natural resources in such dismal situation. A very large portion of the American people will never have the opportunity to visit these natural beauties; yet the rich and elite ( which are likely Government employees ) refuse to pay THEIR share to maintain and protect what they enjoy. There seems to be a pattern that the “working man” is paying for the dimise of this  once great country.

    • Steve

      Yes sir, every public worker is fat, stupid, lazy and overpaid.

  • Christina

    Have there been any considerations for management of parks by the private sector? What would be the pros and cons of that transition?

    • ThresherK

      I’m surprised that they’re not braying about it on Fox News.

      About everything which privatization would be good for has been privatized as of a dozen years ago. Now it’s just a fetish designed to keep corporate lawyers and lobbyist in money.

    • Steve

      Do not do it.
      Not no way, Not no how.

    • Chris

      Regan started the privatization of all the services in our National Parks, National Forests and BLM Forests.

      Yeah, private companies who motive is profit makes it cheaper.

    • Terry Tree Tree

      Christina,  How would you insure that the parks wouldn’t be sold, or otherwise wasted by private-sector management?  It would only take one person, to lose a park!  Either totally or effectively.  Too much risk for whatever possible gain.  Corporations, and Banks, have paid $20 Million dollars to a CEO that ran his corporation into Bankruptcy, while mouthing “Customer Fulfillment” his full time as CEO.  So many examples of this exist, that I have no way to document.  The $Millions given to these CEO’s and Bankers to fail, could have kept our parks, and our country, in fine health.

    • Steve

      This would eliminate the public resource and provide little or no budgetary relief.

  • John in Ames Iowa

    I visited many National Parks in March and could have paid higher fees.  However, the parks need to make choices to keep only the essential things and cancel the extras.  Your guest said he supported a grant to send 5,000 local children to Fredericksburg Battlefield.  Sending kids to a park is up to the local and state governments – not the federal tax payers.  They should feel very fortunate to have so many National Parks nearby.  Iowa has only one small National Memorial in the entire state. 

    • Steve

      Leglize/tax pot.

      This would pay for the CA Park System.

  • the Heaviest Cat

    Hello “On Point”
                   Sorry I had to hang up before you could take my call but I wanted to say that I live .25 miles from Cape Cod National Seashore, a result of JFK’s vision. If it weren’t for the Seashore park that land would have forever fallen to “development’ or access would be restricted to landowners.FRom the beaches of Eastham to the Provincelands Much of Cape Cod’s irreplaceable natural treasures and endangered birds are rpeserved for their own sake and for future generations. Furthermore, if it weren’t for the Seashore my town, WEllfleet’s sea coast character would have degenerated into pre-fab suburbia. Thank you JFK and the National Park System. It must be supported.
                 

  • Larry

    Benton MacKaye, the great American conservationist (who one lived in Shirley, Mass.), proposed the Appalachian Trail in an article published 90 years ago this October. Since 1968, the AT has been a unit of the National Park Service.

    MacKaye promoted the AT as an explicit alternative to capitalism, industrialism, and urbanism. He would be horrified at any notion of privatizing public lands like national and state parks:

    Here’s what he wrote in his 1921 article:

    “The camp community [i.e., the AT community] is a sanctuary and a refuge from the scramble of every-day worldly commercial life. It is in essence a retreat from profit, Cooperation replaces antagonism, trust replaces suspicion, emulation replaces competition.”

    No tollbooths on the Appalachian Trail, a 2,100-mile public open space available to all.

  • quadraticus

    Can someone explain to me why every federal employee says things like, “It would be a shame if all those other programs were cut, but there is no way my program can get by with a penny less!”

    News flash: the federal government and most of the state governments are bankrupt on paper, and it’s only a matter of time before they are functionally bankrupt. Everything is going to be cut, one way or the other.

    The proper level of funding is determined by how much money the parks can collect in use fees. Nature will take care of itself: it’s human intrusion that requires infrastructure and the money to pay for it.

    • ThresherK

      “Collect in use fees”.

      Hey, when you’ve made roads (and every other service government provides) to pay for themselves with user fees, I’ll worry about that for national parks.

      • quadraticus

        I’m all for raising the gas tax to fully cover the cost of the roads. Can you get back on topic now?

        • ThresherK

          Cheap, cheap talk about the gas tax.

          The topic is the national parks. You seem to think that they need to  “pay for themselves”.

          The only park that I accept that bunkum for is “Six Flags”.

          • quadraticus

            You’re the one who brought up the roads, dumbass.

            People need food more than they need national parks. Should the government therefore be subsidizing Monsanto and Cargill out of tax revenue? This would be corporate welfare, something that I imagine you oppose (as I do). I will wait as your head explodes trying to reconcile the two.

  • Steve

    Sell all the parks, national and State, to the rich for private reserves.
    It will create jobs for ground crew maintenance, cooks, dishwashers, ect…

    • Heaviest Cat

      you’re joking, right Steve?

  • Elizabeth Brickhouse

    In the 90′s there was an opportunity for Virginians to donate to housing issues by adding a donation to their taxes.  With this money we built a playground for the children at FORkids, inc. in Norfolk, VA.

    I’d suggest that the Federal government do this for several things, one being our national parks.

    This could be coupled with employment and training, especially for young people out of High School.  (Like CCC  boys.)

  • Chris

    The unemployed work for free?

    How are we supposed to live? Pitch our tent in the parks? Beg for food from the visitors?

    The CCC men got a wage, housing, and food.

    • ThresherK

      But we had a better class of indigents back then! Entrepreneurs selling apples on street corners,  instead of all that fancy “unemployment insurance” and the moral hazard of “Social Security”.

  • Yvonne

    The $10 Senior park pass is a great benefit, however, it need to be increased.  I have enjoyed mine for three years, however I would be willing to pay more to preserve the parks for future generations.  Could a fund be established where we could voluntarily pay extra money that could be directed only to the parks.

    Yvonne

    • Guest

      Yes, Yvonne, there are places where you can donate. You can donate to specific funds, such as, specific park funds or the Park system in general. 

  • Steve

    Are we ready for real change?

  • Happy Camper

    Here’s a suggestion to help congress in many ways:
    Lock the congress in Yellowstone or another park for at least a week.  Let them hike and forage.  Make them eat by campfires and do all the chores themselves.  Let them remember why we save these places.  They are too isolated.  The military industrial complex has too much money for homeland security and there is not enough for homeland assets.  The parks promote national pride and peaceful coexistence.  Why does everthing have to go back to “consumption?”

  • Steve

    Regarding diversity, I have been amazed by how many Asian (East and Southern) and Latino families I have encountered in the Shenandoah National Park system. My community tends to be very homogenous in the rural areas, but when you head up to the Blue Ridge Parkway there are people from all walks of life out enjoying nature.

    • ThresherK

      Steve, I’m from several states away.

      If you’ve lived where you are for ~15 years or so, I’d like to know if demographic changes in your greater metro area has jibed with what you see on the Blue Ridge Parkway, and also if it’s rather immediate, or if there’s a lag.

  • Dave

    One of the fastest growing demographics in our country are hispanics. Having grown up in Southern California I visited local and national parks all my life and found Hispanics disproportionately represented in local parks. Based on this, I would say that they enjoy the outdoors, and use our parks more than other groups. 

    • Chris

      Especially to grow marijuana. The Mexicans have invaded our national lands and are going pot there and killing people, rangers who come to close to their crops.

      • ThresherK

        “Vere are your paperz?”

      • Guest

        I live outside of Yosemite National Park and the helicopters have started flying, looking for the fields. Furthermore, YNP charges a $20 entrance fee, which might be the solution for our National Parks.

  • Michael Metallo

    The ability for all to easily and readily unwind from our hectic lives is absolutely necessary and the parks provide that.  Lets find out if the same people that are calling for the closing of the parks would mind if we make country clubs as inclusive as the parks.  Besides contacting your Congressman the another way to fund the parks is to buy a specialty license plate for state parks as I have.  I’m thinking if Teddy and his cohort thought it was a good idea back then in a slower world isn’t it counterintuitive to eliminate it now in a much faster, more isolated everyday existence?  btw: on my trips to the parks I’ve seen many people of color at the parks, probably about a third.  

  • kendell thompson

    As a former board member of the Association of National Park Rangers, I would like to invite the public to enter into a discussion about bringing more diversity into the parks on the ANPR.org facebook page. Kendell Thompson

  • Rjabski

    Let’s allow the Federal and sate governments to close down the parks for at least two years. Then let the public express their views in the 2012 elections. 

  • Mark Fenton

    Make sure the speakers clarify how modest the relative expenditures on our park systems are. As we think about the national debt and annual budget deficits, we have to recognize that funding our parks is a good example of the “after the decimal point” money. So it’s disengenuous for our leaders to slash the budgets on park funding, one of the few invaluable assets that we can pass down to our children and grandchildren, while we’re not addressing the big costs (defense, entitlements) in our budget. Spending on a modern CCC program would be a great element of stimulus, directly boosting employment, and building on a priceless asset for future generations.

  • Sconradweesner

    Setting aside the National and State Parks took a lot of insight into the future by those who helped secure them. Many of those who were responsible for their establishment are long gone but their forsight lives on.
     
    The fact that so many state and national parks are in jeopardy today speaks volumes about those who would simply defund and dismantle them. It is representative of widespread selfishness and backward thinking…

  • none

    I love the State and National Parks, but I am soooo tired of how EVERYTHING on NPR becomes a racial or social issue. Any and Every one goes to the parks. I have seen people of every race and cread in the parks. Why do we need to keep hashing this issue. please do not use my name

  • RFCooper

    To have a conversation about national parks and spirituality and ‘race’ and to not bring native americans front and center is odd to me.  “Black Faces in White Place”?  How about “Immigrant Faces in Native Places”? 
    Glacier National Park strikes me in relation to this conversation.  Here is a beautiful park in Montana, surrounded by an Indian Reservation that is obviously economically suffering.  Here is an opportunity to water two seeds with one hose (in terms of resources to satisfy a need).  In what way are Native Americans being integrated into the salvation/restoration of our NP’s?

    • Steve

      Our politicians are currently working to provide the hosing.

    • Terry Tree Tree

      RFC,  To employ Native Americans to preserve Native America, do you think such an elegant (simple and effective) solution could be endorsed by National, State, County, and Municipal governments?  The usual method is to hire the company that ‘invested’ the most to your campaign, at a much inflated price, with price over-runs, and other scams.

  • Denny Brennan

    Humanity must preserve “spaces” that evoke the sublime, that transcend history, and subordinate our searches for meaning to the terror and transcendence of the universe.

  • Luisella Simpson

    A little goes a long way: as a European, I am astonished at the scarcity of small parks in American cities, and of the fact that most of them are either memorial parks (the small memorial one in Somerville being very un-user friendly), or graveyards. The only usable one near us at the moment, the Curtis-Hodgkin Park, has been closed for moths now to “protect the grass”!
     
    While we speak of community equipments for recreation, I am also amazed and saddened by the fact the swimming pools in American cities are scarce and CLOSED on WEEK ENDS, just when local populations would most need them!!
     
    Luisella

    • Sam Wilson

      We are always working.. the most productive work force in the world, who needs re-creation anyways?

    • Steve

      Milwaukee,WI has many urban parks…unfortunately they were built predominantly by German Socialist immigrants/politicians.

      Our current governor did all he could to dismantle the system when he was the County Executive and is currently slashing funding to municipalities as the State Chief Executive.

    • Anonymous

      Our enlightened leaders usually see a prospective city park as a piece of property on which no taxes are being collected.

  • Myerspring

    Don’t know how it is in the Parks out west or in the south, but in the New England, in the summer they are filled with Hispanics, Hispanic Americans and white Americans and I have seen black Americans….

  • Elle

    I’ve been to many of the national parks in the last ten years, and it always surprises me at how many international visitors there are. At times, it seems like only half the visitors are American. It makes me wonder if the average American just can’t get there, or if they are just not interested in going? Or if our culture in general is just not as tuned into the outdoors and rather go someplace like Las Vegas or Orlando.

  • Becky in Vermont

    Hello! I believe that the parks are so valuable to our heritage, and avalible to a diverse group of people. There is diversity within my own family. I’m in my 30′s and recently hiked into the Grand Canyon with my 2 children & husband. My parent went 3 weeks later and my Mom who now uses a walker & had never been was able to go & enjoy the beauty. My siblings, who both have large families with limited budgets, are able to camp in our Vermont state parks affordably.  There are many different reasons why we use the parks & why we should continue to use them. Support your parks!!!!

  • CA

    A lot of our national parks are in urban areas, usually for historic value.  In Massachusetts, Lowell National Historic Park and the Charlestown Navy Yard.  A couple weeks ago (yeah, just before the tornado), I went to the Springfield Armory National Historic Site.  Also, there is Saugus Ironworks in Saugus, MA.  These provide us with an understanding of how we, as a people came to be.  These need funding and staffing as well, and, believe me, they are making every bit of their funding go as far as possible.  So, not all of our parks are purely for vacation or recreational use.

  • Lipo53

    Many of the state and local parks are excellent resources for ethnic communities. My local state park,  has long been a favorite picnicking and swimming spot for latinos, Brazilian immigrants, and African Americans from across the Boston area.
     
    That being said, I have camped for decades, and rarely see African Americans camping. BUT most white persons I know also do not camp. Camping is a family propagated culture. My experience is that if you are not introduced to camping as a child (either by your family, or less often, by a youth group like scouting), you don’t usually seek out or feel comfortable with camping in your adult life.

  • love OnPoint

    This photo takes my breath away…….

  • love OnPoint

    Maybe I should say “this nature canvas” takes my breath away…..

  • Rod

    as a european living in the US for a few years now I am absolutely amazed and blown away by the National and State Parks of this country. Nothing really like it in Europe in terms of organization and scale. America’s Best Idea??? Maybe!!Probably!! Americans should be proud!

    I hope that our children get to experience them also!!

  • Cory

    Another brush stroke making up the portrait of American decline.

  • Phil Voorhees

    The bad budget cycle we are now seeing is not new and will continue for as far as the eye can see. Is there a way out? Are there alternatives to unstable congressional funding that anyone is considering?  How do other national park systems manage this problem???

  • NY

    You left off another popular demographic that utilizes the national park system: http://bit.ly/mpXpnO

  • Segue

    It is criminal that they are closing parks first.  It is a political move to get us to all cough up more tax dollars.  One day of war in Afghanistan would probably pay for all of the parks in California to operate for one year (okay, maybe the entire National Park System).  Stop the war! We want the money for Parks!

  • Lsmith8769

    I have lost all faith in the political system!  If it’s not the parks it’s programs that help the low to middle class that are being cut!  It’s about time the upper tax bracket and businesses had to pay their fair share of the burden!

  • Info

    Does anybody know that ReserveAmerica, the reservation system for the Parks is owned by Ticket Master which is of course Clear Channel and they take 20% of each reservation made.. Why is a private company taking money that could be going back into the Park system?

  • Ken

    Sounds to me like closing state and/or national parks; which surely would be a infinitesimal fraction of the national budget; is intuitively penny wise and dollar foolish.  Especially if the national morale is part of the equation!~

  • Bin

    This is part of our program for transforming America from democracy to Oligarchy. People do not need parks. They need to be at work, creating wealth for the conservative executive inheritance elite. Parks will be cut. The same with libraries, museums, and so on.

  • Pingback: Immigrants, Race, and Boston Parks - Union Park Press

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Future Radio Interns Of America: On Point Wants YOU!
Thursday, Jul 10, 2014

On Point needs interns for the fall. Could YOU be one of them?

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